Like any good researcher, I like things that are free, because academic, scholarly, and other research-oriented texts can be pricey, especially when you get into niche topics, and even more so when you start getting into out-of-print works. That’s why sites like Google Books and Archive.org are invaluable for someone like me, because we have whole libraries available at our fingertips, at the press of a button, all for free. But, alas, not everything is; due to (sometimes very reasonable) copyright laws and (sometimes very unreasonable) publisher policies, not all such books are able to be put online for free without getting into piracy (which is an entirely different topic that is neither here nor there).
When it comes to researching the Greek Magical Papyri, although Hans Dieter Betz’ version is the de facto translation of what’s available into English, Karl Preisendanz’ version is legendary, and in many cases forms a “critical edition” for the Greek along with his German translation. The original version of the texts were put out in the late 1920s and early 1930s, and as such, are out of copyright and considered works in the public domain. For that, I would recommend people check out the University of Heidelberg’s online resource for them:
- Volume One: PGM I through PGM VI
- Volume Two: PGM VII through PGM LX, including Christian magical papyri and ostraka
However, there was another, more recent version of Preisendanz’ books put out in the 1970s, which has some extra supplemental information, one of which is a list of hymns and historiolae given as an appendix to volume two with the help of Albert Henrichs. Because of how recent this work is, it’s not in the public domain, which means you still need to buy a copy of it (or pirate it). This is somewhat unfortunate, because I couldn’t easily find a list of what Preisendanz listed as hymns and historiolae otherwise, even though Betz himself refers to it (e.g. footnote 56 to PGM I) and other authors, like Ljuba Merlina Bortolani in her Magical Hymns from Roman Egypt, also make use of such an organization system. Knowing exactly what these references are would be incredibly helpful, but without having access to this more recent version of Preisendanz’ volume 2, I appeared otherwise out of luck.
So I kept an eye on used book lists—new, the book costs upwards of $150 on Amazon—and, happily enough, I did find a relatively cheap copy of the text over on AbeBooks, which I’m happy to present. The bulk of the book seems otherwise identical to the original version, but again, it’s that extra supplemental material I’m interested in. To that end, what follows is a list of Preisendanz’ and Henrich’s entries for the hymns, historiolae, and poems—all called Hymns in other texts—given in the PGM using their number system. Although Preisendanz and Henrichs also give a copy of the original Greek with some notes on other references, both academic and original, pertaining to the content of the entries listed above, the Greek is otherwise basically the same as what’s in the rest of Preisendanz’ original stuff, albeit with fewer marks regarding suggestions or hypothesized text where possible, although for the hymnic and poetic entries, he does mark where some metrical and prosodic information would fall when necessary. However, importantly, Preisendanz and Henrich exclude any instances of barbarous words from their hymns, so bear that in mind when making comparisons.
List of hymns:
- To the All-Creator: PGM XII.244—252
- To the All-Creator: PGM III.550—558
- To Hēlios: PGM IV.939—948
- To Hēlios:
- PGM IV.436—461 (except lines 18, 19, and 21)
- PGM IV.1957—1989 (except lines 26 and 27)
- PGM VIII 74—81 (except lines 7 through 10)
- PGM I.315—325 (except lines 1 through 6, 9 through 11, 18, 21, 22, 26, and 27)
- To Hēlios and the All-God: PGM III.198—229
- To Typhōn: PGM IV.179—201
- To Typhōn: PGM IV.291—273
- To Apollōn: PGM I.296
- To Apollōn: PGM II.2—7
- To Apollōn: PGM VI.22—38
- To Apollōn and Apollōn-Hēlios: PGM II.81—101, 133—140, 163—166
- To Apollōn and Daphnē: PGM III.234—258
- To Daphnē: PGM VI.6—21
- To Daphnē: PGM VI.40—47
- To Hermēs:
- PGM V.400—420
- PGM VII.668—680
- PGM XVII.b (entire)
- To Hekatē-Selēnē-Artemis: PGM IV.2242—2417
- To Hekatē-Selēnē-Artemis: PGM IV.2786—2870
- To Hekatē-Selēnē-Artemis: PGM IV.2574—2610, 2643—2674
- To Hekatē-Selēnē-Artemis: PGM IV.2522—2567
- To Hekatē-Selēnē-Artemis: PGM IV.2714—2783
- To Aphroditē: PGM IV.2902—2939
- To the All-God: PGM I.297—314, 342—345
- To the All-God: PGM XXIII (entire)
- To the Chthonic Ones: PGM IV.1399—1434
- To the Chthonic Ones: PGM IV.1459—1469
Notes on the list of hymns above:
- Hymn 4 is composed of four different overlapping entries which mostly appear continuous when some lines are omitted or shuffled around from the original entries. Preisendanz and Henrich list the bits that didn’t fall in as an addendum to this hymn.
- The hymn to Hermēs is marked as Hymn 15/16 in Preisendanz and Henrich, so no separate Hymn 16 is listed here.
- Hymn 15/16 is also composed of overlapping text from several PGM sources, although (the entirety of) PGM XXIIb is the longest and forms the base for this.
- Hymns 11, 19, and 23 are taken from several sections of particular entries of the PGM, which Preisendanz and Henrich interpret to be a single hymn each, each broken up by ritual directions or other non-hymnic text in those entries.
List of magical historiolae:
- PGM IV.1471—1479
- PGM XX.6—20
- PGM XXIX (entire)
And one last interesting poem, the “Evocation of Wrath”:
- PGM IX.12—13
As another note, I mentioned Bortolani’s book as well. That book is a wonderful reference for some but not all of the hymns and references made in Preisendanz and Henrich; of the thirty entries given total, Bortolani only discusses fifteen. Because I also picked up a copy of her excellent book—an amazing resource detailing the specific connotations, structure, usage, and purposes of these various hymns from the PGM—I’ll also go ahead and give a correspondence between her numbering and that of Preisendanz and Henrich (noted as “PH Hymn”), along with the specific PGM entry numbers for that particular hymn:
- PH Hymn 8, 23b: PGM I.296—327, 341—347
- PH Hymn 4 (excluding 4d): PGM IV.436—461, 1957—1989; PGM VIII.74—81
- PH Hymn 5: PGM III.198—230
- PH Hymn 2: PGM III.549—558
- PH Hymn 3: PGM IV.939—948
- PH Hymn 9: PGM II.2—7
- PH Hymn 11a: PGM II.81—102
- PH Hymn 13, 14: PGM VI.6—44
- PH Hymn 1: PGM XII.244—52
- PH Hymn 25: PGM IV.1399—1434
- PH Hymn 17: PGM IV.2242—2347
- PH Hymn 20: PGM IV.2522—2267
- PH Hymn 19: PGM IV 2574—2610, 2643—2674
- PH Hymn 21: PGM IV.2714—2783
- PH Hymn 18: PGM IV.2786—2870
I should also note that Bortolani breaks up these hymns into two overall sections: her Hymns 1 through 9 are those “to the male deity”, and Hymns 10 through 15 are “to the female chthonic/lunar deity”, as both have definite differences in purpose, tone, and style. Unlike Preisendanz and Henrich, Bortolani retains the barbarous words where they appear.
With that, perhaps this can give researchers of the PGM a little extra nudge when encountering references to particular hymns by number when people refer to Preisendanz and Henrich, or Bortolani as well.